Evolution of Neurosurgery in Bangladesh

During the Pakistan period Professor Omar Vali Jooma (AKA Jooma Khan) used to come from Karachi to provide consultancy primarily for head injury patients. It was a very limited and expensive facility.

Professor Rashiduddin Ahmad (1937 – 2016) can be considered to be the Founder of Neurosurgery of Bangladesh. In 1970, our pioneer neurosurgeon Emeritus Professor Rashid Uddin Ahmad returned to East Pakistan after having completed his FRCS & five years Neurosurgery training under Professor F. John Gillingham in Edinburg and established the first Neurosurgery unit in the then IPGM&R with only six beds. He was also awarded Lifelong Honorary Colonel in Combined Military Hospital, Dhaka in.

Professor A H M Ahsanullah (1937 – 2014) after completing his neurosurgical training in Turkey joined the neurosurgical service in IPGM&R just after the liberation of Bangladesh (1971).

Professor Ata Alahi Khan (1939 - 2016) returned from UK in 1975 to join Neurosurgery unit in Dhaka Medical College & Hospital, Dhaka.

Professor Lutful Anwar Quadery was born in 1941. He established a Neurosurgical unit in Chittagong Medical College and Hospital, after his return from UK in 1978.

Prof. Mohammad Afzal Hossain was born in 1952. He joined the Department of Neurosurgery at IPGM&R as Assistant Surgeon on Supernumerary Duty on May, 1985 and rose up the ranks to become Professor in 1998 and Chairman of the Department in 2001. He was retired on 19th December 2017.

Prof. Kanak Kanti Barua was born in 1953. He joined the Department of Neurosurgery at IPGM&R in 1979 as a House Surgeon of Prof. Rashiduddin Ahmed and rose up the ranks to become Professor of Neurosurgery on 19th October 2001. He became the Chairman of the Department of Neurosurgery of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University in 2015. He became the Vice-Chancellor of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University on 24th March, 2018.

He is the Dean of Faculty of Surgery, and Acting President of Teachers Association of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical Unversity. He is also the syndicate member of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical Unversity, University of Chittagong, and University of Rajshahi.

He is the Elected President of Bangladesh College of Physicians and Surgeons (BCPS), President of Bangladesh Society of Neurosurgeons (BSNS) and was also the Founder Secretary General of the society. He was the President of SAARC Society of Neurosurgeons. He is the member of Editorial Board in Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation Journal. Recently he was awarded by BMA North American Chapter at New Orleans on 26th July 2018 for Outstanding Performance and service in the field of Neurosurgery.

Prof. Shafique Uddin Ahamed was born in 1948. He joined as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Neurosurgery in IPGM&R in 1987 after completing his MS, Ph.D. from Russia and Fellow in Neurosurgery from Australia. He became Professor of Neurosurgery in 2002 and joined Dhaka Medical College as Head of the Department and retired in 2005 (Leave before retirement).

Dr. Waheed Uz Zaman graduated from Rajshahi Medical College; completed his FCPS and became Assistant Professor of Neurosurgery in ................. and rose up the ranks to become Associate Professor in ...................... Now he is working as a Professor of Neurosurgery in Green Life Hospital Ltd. Dhaka.

Col. Majed Bakht started sporadic neurosurgery since 1987 in Combined Military Hospital, Dhaka.

Brig. Gen. Mohammad Nuruzzaman was pioneer neurosurgeon to set up an independent centre of Neurosurgery in Dhaka Cantonment. It was the first neurosurgery unit of Bangladesh to have microscope since 1990. He was promoted as brigadier in 2009 and retired from service in 2009.

Prof. Nausher Alam had completed his FCPS in Surgery in 1989 and joined as an Assistant Professor of Neurosurgery in .................. He became Associate Professor of Neurosurgery in Bangladesh Medical College, Dhanmondi, Dhaka from 1999 - 2006. Now he is working as Principal of ....................

ADVANCEMENT IN THE AVAILABILITY OF NEUROSURGICAL SERVICES

Today, neurosurgical services are widely available throughout the country. These include:

  • Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) - started from 1970
  • Dhaka Medical College & Hospital - from 1975
  • Chittagong Medical College & Hospital - from 1978
  • National Institute of Neurosciences and Hospital - established on 12th November 2012; operation started on 21st April 2013.
  • Combined Millitary Hospital - started by Col Majed Bakht since 1987
  • Sir Salimullah Medical College & Mitford Hospital
  • Mymensingh Medical College & Hospital
  • Sylhet M A G Osmani Medical College & Hospital
  • Rajshahi Medical College & Hospital
  • Rangpur Medical College & Hospital
  • Comilla Medical College & Hospital
  • Sher E Bangla Medical College & Hospital
  • Dinajpur Medical College & Hospital
  • Sheikh Abu Naser Medical College & Hospital
  • Holy Family Red Crescent Medical College Hospital

There are many well equipped neurosurgical facilities in the private sector spread all over the country.

ADVNCES IN NEUROSURGICAL EDUCATION

In 1997 the first MS (Neurosurgery) course was started in IPGM&R. It was a 3 year academic course under the University of Dhaka. Similar courses were started at Dhaka Medical College also in 1997 and at Chittagong Medical College in 2002. In 2010, this was replaced by a 5 year residency course under BSMMU.

It is a very popular course and at present there are about 75 students in various phases of the course. Some of the students are from neighbouring country Nepal and Bhutan. Till now over 150 candidates have completed the MS course and are practicing independent neurosurgery.The Bangladesh College of Physicians and Surgeons (BCPS) also offers FCPS (Neurosurgery), a neurosurgery fellowship.

NEUROSURGICAL SOCIETIES

Bangladesh Society of Neurosurgeons is our prestigious society established in 1998. Prof. Rashiduddin Ahmed was the 1st President and Prof. Kanak Kanti Barua was General Secretary of the society. Neurospine Society of Bangladesh was established in 2015. We are the Founder member of Asian Congress of Neurological Surgeons ( 1993), South Asian Association of Neurosurgeons (1999) and member of World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (2000).

The Bangladesh Society of Neurosurgeons, which has 147 active members today, has hosted the SANC meetings twice in 2001 and in 2015. Under the auspices of these affiliations, various educational, cadaveric and live surgical workshops had been held in Bangladesh. Many young neurosurgeons have been afforded long and short term fellowship opportunities by these organizations. The first official Journal of the society, Bangladesh Journal of Neurosurgery was published in July 2011.

ADVANCES IN INVESTIGATION FACILITIES

Before 1987 the following investigations were available:

  1. Plain X-rays
  2. Isotope Brain Scan
  3. Cerebral Angiography (Direct Puncture)
  4. Burrhole Ventriculography
  5. Lumber Air Encephalography
  6. Myelography
  7. Orbital Phlebography

Before the availability of CT, MRI & DSA, all the above gave indirect evidence of cranial and spinal pathologies

In 1987 CT and in 1996 MRI became available.The first CT scanner was a second generation machine at BIRDEM and the first MRI scanner was a 0.3 Tesla machine at the Holy Family Red Crescent Hospital.Subsequently further advanced CT and MRI machines became available.

  • CT: Angiography, 3D reconstruction of bones
  • CT and MRI scanners are widely available throughout the country sometimes even at district levels.
  • Duplex Study for neck vessels and Transcranial Doppler
  • DSA
  • SPECT
  • PET
  • MRI: Angiography, MRS, MR tractography, DTI

There have been noteworthy advancements in 4 fields of neurosurgery

  1. Endoscopic neurosurgery
  2. Interventional endovascular neurosurgery
  3. Spinal stabilization procedures
  4. Stem cell therapy